KESIAPSIAGAAN PERAWAT RUMAH SAKIT DALAM MENGHADAPI BENCANA: TINJAUAN SISTEMATIS

Ramdani Ramdani, Yanny Trisyani, Etika Emaliyawati

Abstract


Kesiapsiagaan terhadap bencana merupakan aspek yang sangat penting penentu keberhasilan dalam penanggulangan bencana. Untuk mengurangi dampak bencana di seluruh fase yang berbeda, banyak tindakan keperawatan yang diperlukan, termasuk pencegahan atau mitigasi, kesiapsiagaan, respon, pemulihan, dan rekonstruksi atau rehabilitasi. Akan tetapi informasi tentang gambaran kesiapsiagaan perawat terhadap bencana secara sistematis masih terbatas. Sehingga tinjauan ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi hasil penelitian yang ada tentang kesiapan perawat di rumah sakit dalam menghadapi bencana secara lebih komprehensif. Metode: Pencarian literature dilakukan terhadap artikel yang diterbitkan dari 2014 sampai 2019 menggunakan PubMed dan Google Scholar dengan kombinasi kata kunci readiness atau preparedness dan disaster dan healthcare professional atau nursing. Kriteria inklusi pencarian adalah studi yang berfokus pada analisis kesiapsiagaan pada perawat, jenis studi cross sectional, diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Indonesia. Semua makalah yang terpilih dimasukkan berdasarkan penilaian independen berdasarkan kriteria dari JBI. Hasil: Pencarian awal menghasilkan 1.143 artikel dan hanya 9 artikel yang termasuk dalam tinjauan artikel, dari 9 artikel menunjukan  mayoritas perawat rumah sakit menunjukkan kesiapan yang buruk terhadap respon bencana rentang dari 45,8% sampai 78,5%. Mereka juga tidak percaya diri dengan kemampuannya dalam menghadapi bencana yang besar (52,1% - 72,4%). Akan tetapi, sebanyak (48,3% - 82,3%) perawat menunjukkan kesiapan yang baik terhadap respon bencana dalam hal manajemen klinis dan kesiapan dalam perlindungan diri. Kesimpulan : Hasil review menunjukan bahwa sebagian besar perawat memiliki kesiapan yang kurang optimal dalam menangani bencana. Pembuat kebijakan harus mendorong diadakanya pelatihan untuk perawat mengenai kesiapsiagaan bencana di rumah sakit.


Keywords


Disaster Response, Hospital, Nurses, Preparedness, Readiness

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33755/jkk.v6i2.169

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